This was one of the ultimate highlights and reasons for my journey to North America.
'Unlock the Secrets of Soil', discovering the science of the Soil Food Web and learning techniques for soil improvement and remediation with Dr.Elaine Ingham.
I am deeply passionate about the soil, as our topsoil is precious, nourishing and feeding all life on Earth.
Day 1: The Soil Food Web; Appearance and Function of Organisms, Aerobic vs Anaerobic, Nutrients in Soil, Soil Chemistry and Biology, Testing Soils.
Day 2: The Soil Food Web continued; Soil Profiles, pH and Mineral Availability, Soil Structure, Nutrient Cycling, Succession.
Day 3: Making Compost; Thermal, Vermi and Static Compost, Carbon and Nitrogen ratios, Moisture content, Management and Testing.
Day 4: Making Compost Tea; Equipment, Materials, Food Sources, Extracts and Teas, Fungal and Bacterial Teas, Application.
Day 5: Microscopy; Equipment, Assembly of Microscope, Features of Microscope, Identification of Organisms, Soil Testing and Recording.
The first 2 days were an amazing overload of information, which I am hoping to capture and summarize in later posts and for the use of student notes.
Compost: Day 3
The third day was a little more practical, and we were taken to a small park where the correct method for making a thermal compost was demonstrated. Now I say correct only to mean this is one of the best ways to capture the right kinds of beneficial organisms that will benefit soil life. There are many ways to make compost, but Elaine explained this was amongst one of the simplest and most effective ways to gain excellent results.
Three types or material was lined up in buckets so we could see the ratios with our eye.
2 Buckets of High Nitrogen Material (Legumes, but only if functioning nodules are present, Fresh Manure or Seeds), 4 Buckets of Green Plant Material (Grass clippings, Weeds, Green leaves, Hay), 4 Buckets of Woody Material (Straw, Woodchips, Brown leaves).
A thermal compost should be 10% high Nitrogen, 40% Green Material and 60% Woody Material depending on whether a fungal or bacterial dominance is wanted.
One of the easiest methods to use is to create a cylinder of wire mesh for the materials to be placed in
To extract humic acid, compost from a reliable source is used. You can get a lab to test the compost for lots of good little critters, test it yourself or trust in the smell, colour and odor. Compost should, according to Dr.Elaine Ingham, be the colour of a 70% cocoa chocolate bar! The smell should be earthy, rich and quite pleasant- no odors of ammonium or rot.
The compost is placed in a mesh bag and a colander, with a bowl underneath. Water is then poured over the contents and the remaining liquid should be a dark chocolate colour.
The group teamed up to mix the materials using the right ratios, adding the humic acid and wetting the pile accordingly.
Our finished 'lasagna'! There was mixed opinions surrounding whether or not it was more beneficial to layer the materials or not. Dr.Elaine Ingham states that during her investigations and studies, it has made no difference.
We were then told that when creating good compost one must invest in a long stainless steel themometre, and the temperature should be taken from the top and the sides.
The pile needs to be turned so the contents from the outside layer gets turned into the center, and the center gets turned to the outside top layer. This will ensure the adequate distribution of heat and therefore decomposition amongst the pile.
Temperatures need to reach above 55 degrees Celsius for 3 days, 65.5 degrees Celsius for 2 days or 74 degrees Celsius for 1 day if pathogens are going to be killed and beneficial microorganisms to breed.
Carbon and Nitrogen mixed to create lush Compost!
Compost Tea: Day 4
On the fourth day we also got to see some action, and watched as Loita demonstrated her methods of making high quality compost tea.
Now the trick to making good Compost Tea is that it must always be aerated in order to breed aerobic organisms, which contribute to a healthy 'digestive system' of the soil.
We evaluated different equipment, and ideally you want compost tea brewers with the least amounts of pipes, that are easy to clean and have no crevices. This is so the anaerobic organisms (pathogens) cannot stick to these areas and breed, if they do they will turn your whole compost tea anaerobic, despite whether it is being aerated or not.
Foods, such as kelp emulsion, fish hydrolysate and humic acid are added to the mixture to feed bacteria and fungi. Most soils are deficient in fungi, so adding the fish hydrolysate is a great way to make sure fungi will grow after application of the tea. It is important to note the difference of fish hydrolisate to fish emulsion, which is a bacteria food. The emulsion has the oils removed, which is what fungi predominately feed on. If you want a more bacterially dominated soil (used mostly for vegetable crops), using fish emulsion rather than hydrolysate could be beneficial.
It is important to brew the tea at the temperature you will be applying, and it does not matter if temperatures fluctuate, as this is what happens in nature.
It is important when applying compost tea to not only apply to the roots, but to the leaves of the crop also. There are many kinds of bacteria and fungi that adhere to and protect the surfaces of plants.
Microscopy: Day 5
After considering at length if I should invest in a microscope, I decided to invest in one as a birthday present (as if I needed any justification!). I will now be able to start doing my own soil testing for gardens, be able to test compost teas and use the microscope for soil classes and also botany in Herbal Medicine classes! (oooooOoooo!)
As far as I am concerned, we exist as hosts for microorganisms. Bacteria were the first living inhabitants of the Earth, and they have done a remarkable job of colonizing every surface.
There is still a lot to be learned about this world we have yet to understand, and until we start to appreciate bacteria as we appreciate polar bears, I feel we are at a loss.
We are loosing our topsoil at a phenomenal rate, unsure if we will be able to feed future populations, not to mention the species which are relying on the soil; plant, animal, microbe and fungi alike.
One of my dedications to this Earth is to learn more about this web of life, and how to re mediate it.
The world of Biology, Chemistry and Physics are interlinked. They are wholistically connected, and we must join the dots and start to understand how they all impact each other, rather than basing agricultural practice on chemistry alone.
More posts on Soil Science to come!